An experimental biotechnological formulation, hereinafter referred to as Poxivir, developed by MenidiMedica Biotech Greece, acts as an inhibitor of Orthopoxvirus members, including but not limited to monkeypox, has shown promise for potential treatment on patients suffering from diseases caused by Orthopoxvirus members.
Orthopoxvirus species can infect animals and humans. The members of Orthopoxvirus genus are camelpox, cowpox, ectromella, horsepox, monkeypox, racconpox, skunkpox, taterapox, uasin gishu, vaccinia, variola (commonly known as smallpox, caused by Variola major and Variola minor), volepox. Monkeypox virus has recently reemerged, with person-to-person transmission throughout the world. In a possible scenario of a poxvirus outbreak, given the complexities of the occured infection, a development of effective anti-Orthopoxvirus formulation other than vaccines is an imperative priority.
- Phase 1 – In Vitro Cell Cytotoxic Value of Poxivir
In cell cultures, Poxivir has shown promised antiviral activity, at various concentrations, against different Orthopoxvirus members and their mutant strains. Cell cytotoxic value, in cell cultures, was measured by neutral red uptake and the obtained value was higher than 120 μM for Poxivir.
- Phase 2 – In Vivo Cytotoxicity of Poxivir, proposed dosages scheme of Poxivir, duration of potential treatment with Poxivir, protection from mortality with Poxivir
Fourteen groups of BALB/c mice, consisting of 20 mice per group, were lethally infected with different Orthopoxvirus members. Poxivir was administered in nine groups, into the peritoneum twice daily at 2, 7, and 20 mg/kg, twenty four hours after initial infection. The experiment lasted for 5 days and the treatment with Poxivir resulted in complete protection from mortality at all above mentioned doses (P<0.001). Tecovirimat and Cidofovir were administered in 2 separate groups, each, twenty four hours and fourty eight hours after the initial infection. One group was used as control group, administered by a placebo, twenty four hours after the initial infection.
|Groups||Formulation dosage||Mortality rates|
|Group 1||Placebo 24 hours after the infection||100% - 20 mice died|
|Group 2||Placebo and Tecovirimat 24 hours after the infection||90% - 18 mice died|
|Group 3||Placebo and Tecovirimat 48 hours after the infection||100% - 20 mice died|
|Group 4||Placebo and Cidofovir 24 hours after the infection||95% - 19 mice died|
|Group 5||Placebo and Cidofovir 48 hours after the infection||100% - 20 mice died|
|Group 6||Poxivir 2 mg/kg, 24 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
|Group 7||Poxivir 2 mg/kg, 48 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
|Group 8||Poxivir 2 mg/kg, 72 hours after the infection||15% - 3 mice died|
|Group 9||Poxivir 7 mg/kg, 24 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
|Group 10||Poxivir 7 mg/kg, 48 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
|Group 11||Poxivir 7 mg/kg, 72 hours after the infection||10% - 2 mice died|
|Group 12||Poxivir 20 mg/kg, 24 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
|Group 13||Poxivir 20 mg/kg, 48 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
|Group 14||Poxivir 20 mg/kg, 72 hours after the infection||0% - no mice died|
A promising anti-Orthopoxvirus formulation candidate is available. Further clinical experiments may proceed for potential use on humans. MenidiMedica Biotech.